Research and Selected Publications


1. Episodic memory is memory for past events from a specific time and place. We investigate episodic memory development by testing how past events and their temporal and spatial contexts are encoded and retrieved by children of different ages. Some ways that we research this is by asking children to watch pictures on a computer screen that has an eye-tracker embedded into it, or participate in staged events with the researcher. We then test children's memory for these events that they experienced in the lab.
  • Pathman, T., Deker, L., Parmar, P.K., Adkins, M.C., Polyn, S. (in press). Children’s memory “in the wild”: Examining the temporal organization of free recall from a week-long camp at a local zoo. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications.
  • Pathman, T., Deker, L., Coughlin C., & Ghetti, S. (2022) Examining Temporal Memory and Flexible Retrieval of Conventional Time Knowledge across Middle to Late Childhood, Journal of Cognition and Development. DOI: 10.1080/15248372.2022.2072846
  • Sipe, S.J., & Pathman, T. (2021). Memory at play: Examining relations between episodic and semantic memory in a children’s museum. Child Development. Early view Published online Dec 23, 2020.
  • Scales, M., & Pathman, T. (2021). Flexible retrieval of semantic knowledge predicts temporal memory, but not memory for other types of contexts, in 4-6-year-olds. Cognitive Development.
  • Pathman, T., Coughlin, C. & Ghetti, S. (2018). Space and time in episodic memory: Effects of linearity and directionality on memory for spatial location and temporal order in children and adults. PLOS ONE, 13(11): e0206999.
  • Pathman, T., & Ghetti, S. (2014). The eyes know time: A novel paradigm to examine the development of temporal memory. Child Development, 85, 792-807.
  • Pathman, T., & Bauer, P.J. (2013). Beyond initial encoding: Measures of the post-encoding status of memory traces predict long-term recall in infancy. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 114, 321-338.
  • Pathman, T., & Ghetti, S. (2016). More to it than meets the eye: How eye movements can  elucidate the development of episodic memory. Memory, 24, 721-736.
  • Canada, K.L., Pathman, T., & Riggins, T. (2020). Longitudinal Development of Memory for Temporal Order in Early to Middle Childhood.  The Journal of Genetic Psychology, DOI: 10.1080/00221325.2020.1741504.
2. We study autobiographical memory (personally meaningful events) by asking children about their everyday activities, or by asking them to photograph events of their choosing. For example children may photograph events at a museum, zoo or home, and then we ask children about the events using their photographs.


  • *Kian, T., *Parmar, P. K., Fabiano, G. F., & Pathman, T. (2021). Tell me about your visit with the lions: Eliciting event narratives to examine children’s memory and learning during summer camp at a local zoo. Frontiers in Psychology12. Free, open access: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.657454 [*Denotes equal contribution to this work].
  • Deker, L. & Pathman, T. (2021). Did I visit the polar bear before the giraffe? Examining Memory for Temporal Order and the Temporal Distance Effect in Early to Middle Childhood. Applied Cognitive Psychology. Free, open access:
  • Pathman, T., Doydum, A., & Bauer, P.J. (2013). Bringing order to life events: Memory for the temporal order of autobiographical events over an extended period in school-aged children and adults. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 115, 309-325.
  • Pathman, T., Larkina, M., Burch, M., & Bauer, P.J. (2013). Young children’s memory for the times of personal past events. Journal of Cognition and Development, 14, 120-140.
  • Pathman, T., Samson, Z., Dugas, K., Cabeza, R. & Bauer, P.J. (2011). A “snapshot” of declarative memory: Differing developmental trajectories in episodic and autobiographical memory. Memory, 19, 825-835.
3. In combination with behavioral tasks, we use ERP (event related potentials) and neuroimaging methods. This will help us learn about the relation between neural substrates and processes and memory across development.


  • Bettencourt, K., Everett, L., Chen Y., & Pathman, T. (2021). Examining the Development of Memory for Temporal Context and its Underlying Neural Processes using Event-Related Potentials. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. Free, open access:
  • *DeMaster, D., *Pathman, T., Lee, J., & Ghetti, S. (2013). Structural development of the hippocampus and episodic memory: Developmental differences along the anterior/posterior axis. Cerebral Cortex.  [*Denotes equal contribution to this work]
  • Bauer, P.J., Pathman, T., Inman, C., Campanella, C. & Hamann, S. (2017). Neural correlates  of autobiographical memory retrieval in children and adults.  Memory, 25, 450-466.


For a full publication list, please visit Dr. Pathman's personal webpage.